The Unix Heritage Society mailing list
 help / color / Atom feed
* [TUHS] System Call History
@ 2020-02-05 19:16 Jon Steinhart
  2020-02-05 21:52 ` Warren Toomey
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 3+ messages in thread
From: Jon Steinhart @ 2020-02-05 19:16 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: TUHS main list

Does anybody have or know of a list of system calls that describes
when and what version of UNIX (and descendents) they were added?

Thanks,
	Jon

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 3+ messages in thread
* Re: [TUHS] System Call History
@ 2020-02-06 14:33 Doug McIlroy
  0 siblings, 0 replies; 3+ messages in thread
From: Doug McIlroy @ 2020-02-06 14:33 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: tuhs

[-- Attachment #1: Type: text/plain, Size: 419 bytes --]

> Does anybody have or know of a list of system calls that describes
> when and what version of UNIX (and descendents) they were added?

Hardly a week goes by in which I don't refer to the attached
condensed listing of all the man pages in v1-v9, taken from
my "Research Unix Reader". It casts a much narrower net than
Diomedes Spinelli's repository. but it takes no clicking to
look thing up--just a quick grep.

Doug

[-- Attachment #2: contents --]
[-- Type: text/plain, Size: 48557 bytes --]

                 Combined Table of Contents



The  following  table  lists  every  page  ever printed in a
research edition.  In general the presence of a page  in  an
edition  is  signaled  by +; a number instead of + indicates
that the page appeared in a different chapter of  that  edi@@\
	@
tion.   An appended name in brackets [ ] means that a manual
page was later incorporated into or obsoleted by  the  named
page.

Research  software  that  was  not  included in distribution
tapes was generally omitted from the v6 and v7 manuals.  For
v7  an  addendum  about  unexported software was printed for
local use; items from it are flagged L.

Thus one can infer from the table that apl existed  from  v5
through  v7,  but  was never distributed.  In v5 it lived in
chapter 6, @@@@@@User  maintained  commands.@\
	@@@@@   It  disappeared
with v8, a casualty of the conversion from PDP@@@11s to V\
	AXes.

Many  trivial  name  changes  are  quietly  ignored, e.g.  a
change from cons(4) in v8 to console(4) in v9 and from  file
system(V)  in  v1@@@v3 to fs(V) in v4@@@6 to fil\
	sys(5) in v7@@@v9.
The short descriptions also changed from time to time; those
given  here  are  from v7 or else from the edition where the
page first appeared.

1. Commands

In v1@@@v6, commands were classified as standard or as  @\
	@@@@@user
maintained,@@@@@@  the  latter being relegated t\
	o chapter 6.  In
this list both  categories  appear  in  chapter  1.   Games,
though, are listed with chapter 6 as always.

Edition           Title      Purpose
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
. . . . . . + + + intro      introduction to commands
. + + . . . . . . :          place label [goto]
. . . . . . . + + =          redo previous shell command
+ . + . . . . . . acct       get connect@@@time accountin\
	g
. . . . . . + . + adb        debugger
. . . . . . . + . altran     language for algebraic computation [l\
	angs]
. . . . 6 . L . . apl        APL interpreter
. . . . . . . + + apply      apply a command to a set of arguments
. . . . . . . + + apsend     send troff output to aps@@@5
+ + + + + + + + + ar         archive and library maintainer
. . . . . . + . . arcv       convert archives to new format
+ + + + + + + + + as         assembler
. . . . . . . + . asa        interpret ASA control characters
. . . . . . . + + ascii      interpret ASCII characters
Edition           Title      Purpose
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
. . . . . . + + + at         execute commands at a later time
. . . . . . + + + awk        pattern scanning and processing langu\
	age
. . . 6 6 6 . . . azel       obtain satellite predictions
+ + + . . . . . . b          compile b program
. . . . . . . . + backup     backup and recover files
. . . . . . + . . badblk     dispose of unusable disk
+ + + + 6 + + . . bas        basic [hoc]
6 6 . . . . . . . basic      DEC supplied basic [langs]
. . . . . . + + + basename   strip filename affixes
. . . . . + + + + bc         arbitrary@@@precision arithm\
	etic language
+ . . . . . . . . boot       reboot system [20boot(8)]
. . . . . . L . . bs         a compiler/interpreter for modest@\
	@@sized programs
. . . . . . . + + bundle     collect files for distribution
6 6 . 6 6 6 + + 7 cal        print calendar
. . . . . . + + + calendar   reminder service
. . . . . . L . . call       ring a telephone
. . . . . . . + + can        interface to Cannon laser@@@\
	printer spooler
+ + + + + + + + + cat        catenate and print
. . . + 6 . . . . catsim     phototypesetter simulator
. . . . . . + + + cb         C program beautifier
. . . . . . . + + cbt        btree utilities
. + + + + + + + + cc         C compiler
. . . . . . + . . cd         change working directory [sh]
. . + + + + . . . cdb        C debugger [adb]
. . . . . . L + . cflow      generate C flow graph
+ + + + + + . . . chdir      change working directory [cd]
+ + + + + + + + + chmod      change mode
+ + + + + 8 + 8 8 chown      change owner or group
. . . . . . . . + cin        C interpreter
. . . . . . . + + cite       process citations in a document
. . . . . . . + . clear      clear terminal screen
+ + + + + + + + + cmp        compare two files
. . . . 6 6 + . . col        filter reverse line feeds [column]
. . . . . . . + + column     column alignment
. . . . + + + + + comm       select or reject lines common to two \
	sorted files
. . . . . . + . . con        connect to another UNIX [dcon]
. . . . . . . + + coreid     identify source of a core image
+ + + + + + + + + cp         copy file
. . . . . . L + + cpio       copy file archives in and out
. 6 + + + + L . . cref       cross@@@reference table
. . + . . . + + 6 crypt      encode/decode
. . . . . . . + + ct         call terminal (and start a session)
. . . . . . + + + cu         call Unix
. . . . . . . + + cut        rearrange columns of text
. . . . . . . + + cyntax     C syntax checker
. . . . . . . + + d202       phototypesetter filters
6 6 . . . . . . . das        disassembler [adb]
+ + + + + + + + + date       print and set the date
+ + + + + + . . . db         symbolic debugger [adb]
+ . . . . . . . . dbppt      write binary paper tape [dump]
+ + + + + + + + + dc         desk calculator
. . . . . . . + + dcon       remote login and execution
Edition           Title      Purpose
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
. . . . + + + + + dd         convert and copy a file
. . . . . . + + + deroff     remove nroff, troff, tbl and eqn cons\
	tructs
+ + + 8 8 8 + + + df         disk free
. . . . + + + + + diff       differential file comparator
. . . . . . + + . diff3      3@@@way differential file co\
	mparison
. . . . . . . + + dired      directory editor
. . . . . . . + + docgen     generate a document from a script
. . . . . . . + + doctype    guess command line for formatting a d\
	ocument
6 6 8 . . . . . . dli        load DEC binary paper tapes
6 6 . . . . . . . dpt        read DEC ASCII paper tapes
. . . . . . L . . draw       edit a circuit diagram
. + . . . . . . . ds         verify directory hierarchy
+ + + + + + . . . dsw        delete files interactively [rm]
+ . . . . . . . . dtf        format DECtape
+ + + + + + + + + du         summarize disk usage
. . . . . . + . . dumpdir    print the names of files on a dump ta\
	pe
. + + + + + + + + echo       echo arguments
+ + + + + + + + + ed         text editor
. . . . . . . + . efl        extended Fortran language preprocesso\
	r
. . . . + + + + + eqn        typeset mathematics
. . . . . . + + + expr       evaluate arguments as an expression
. + + + + + . . . exit       end command sequence [sh]
. . . . . . + + + f77        Fortran 77 compiler
. . + + 6 6 + + + factor     factor a number, generate large prime\
	s
. + + + + + . . . fc         compile Fortran program [f77]
. + + + + 6 . . . fed        form@@@letter editor [form]
. . . . . . L . . fget       retrieve files from HIS 6000
. . . + . + + + + file       determine file type
+ + . . . . . . . find       find file with a given name
. . . . + + + + + find       find files
. . . . . . . . + fmt        ultra@@@simple text formatte\
	r
+ . . . . . . . . for        compile fortran program [fc]
+ + + + + 6 L . . form       generate form letter
. . + . . . . . . forml      generate form letters
. . . . . . L . . fsend      send files to HIS 6000
. . . . . . L . . gcat       send phototypesetter output to HIS 60\
	00 [apsend]
. . . . . . . + + getuid     get user identity
. . . . . . L . . gex        graphics exerciser for Tektronix 4014
. + + + + + . . . goto       command transfer [sh]
. . . . . . . . + gone.fishingautomatic reply to mail
. . . . 6 . . . . graf       draw graph on GSI terminal
. . . . . . . + + grap       pic preprocessor for drawing graphs
. . . . . 6 + + + graph      draw a graph
. . . . . . L . . greek      interpret extended character set
. . . + + + + + + grep       search a file for a pattern
. . . . 6 6 . . . gsi        interpret funny characters on GSI ter\
	minal
. . . . . . . + + hang       start a process in stopped state
. . . . . . . + + hoc        interactive floating point language
. . . . . . L . . huff       Huffman code file compression [pack]
+ . . . . . . . . hup        hang up typewrite
. . + 6 6 . . . . hyphen     find hyphenated words
. . . . 6 . L . . ibm        submit off@@@line job to HO \
	IBM 370
Edition           Title      Purpose
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
. . . . . . . + . icont      Icon language translator and compiler
. . . . . . . + + ideal      troff preprocessor for drawing pictur\
	es
. . . . . . . + + idiff      interactive file comparison
. + + + + + . . . if         conditional command [sh]
. . . . . . L . . iget       get files from Holmdel IBM 370
. . . . . . + + . iostat     report I/O statistics [load]
. . . . . . L . . isend      send files to Holmdel IBM 370
. . . . . . + + + join       relational database operator
. . 8 + + + + + + kill       terminate a process with extreme prej\
	udice
. . . . . . L . . labmake    print address labels on GCOS [lab]
. . . . . . . + + lab        label maker
. . . . . . . . + langs      altran, basic, ... languages
. . . . . . . + . last       report recent logins [who]
. . . . . . . . + latex      tex macro packages and bibliographies
. . . . . . . + + lcomp      line@@@by@@@line pr\
	ofiler
+ . . . . . . . . lbppt      read binary paper tape [restor]
+ + + + + + + + + ld         loader
. . . . . . L . . lde        logic design equation language
. . . . . . + + + learn      computer aided instruction about UNIX
. . . . . . + + + lex        generator of lexical analysis program\
	s
. . . . . . . + . lisp       lisp interpreter and compiler [langs]
. . . . . . + + + lint       a C program verifier
+ + + + + + + + + ln         make a link
. . . . . . . . + load       load and input@@@output stat\
	istics
. + + + + + + 8 8 login      sign on
. . . . . . + + + look       find lines in a sorted list
. . . . . . + . . lookall    look through all text files on UNIX
. . . . . . + . + lorder     find ordering relation for an object \
	library
. . . . + . + + + lpr        line printer spooler
+ + + + + + + + + ls         list contents of directory
. . . . . . + + + m4         macro processor
. + + 6 6 6 . . . m6         macroprocessor [m4]
. . . . . . . + + Mail       send and receive mail
+ + + + + + + + + mail       send or receive mail among users
. . . . . . + + + make       maintain program groups
. + + + + + + + + man        print sections of this manual
. . . . . . . + . matlab     interactive matrix desk calculator [l\
	angs]
. . . + . . . . . merge      merge several files [sort]
+ + + + + + + + + mesg       permit or deny messages
. . . . . . . . + mk         maintain (make) related files
+ + + + + + + + + mkdir      make a directory
. . . . . . . . + mkpkg      make and install packages
. . . . . . . . + monk       typeset documents and letters
. + + . . . . . . mt         save/restore files on magtape [tar]
+ + + + + + + + + mv         move or rename files and directories
. . . . + + . . . neqn       typeset mathematics on a terminal [eq\
	n]
. . . . . . . + + netnews    send or receive news articles
. . . . . . . + + newer      test file modification dates
. . . . . + + + + newgrp     log in to a new group
. . . . . . . + + news       print news items
. . . . . . L . . nfs        communicate with Spider File System
. . . . . . L 1 6 number     convert Arabic numerals to English
Edition           Title      Purpose
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
. . . + + + + + + nice       run a command at low priority
+ + + + + + + + + nm         print name list
. . . . 6 . . . . npr        print file on Spider line@@@\
	printer
. . . + + + . . . nohup      run a command at low priority [nice]
. + + + + + . . . nroff      format text for printing [troff]
+ + + + + + + + + od         octal dump
. + + + + + L . . opr        print file off@@@line
. + + 6 . . . . . ov         page overlay file print
. . . . . . . + + p          paginate
. . . . . . . + + pack       compress and expand files
. . . . . . . + . paper      list input on HP2621P printer
. . . . . . . + + pascal     language interpreter
. . . . . . . + + pc         pascal language compiler
. . + + + + + + + passwd     install new password or user
. . . + + + . . . pfe        print floating exception
. . . . . . . + + pic        troff preprocessor for drawing pictur\
	es
. . . . . . . + . pick       pick arguments [apply]
. . . . . . L . . place      design physical layout of a circuit
. . . . 6 . . . . plog       make a graph on the gsi terminal
. . . + 6 6 + + + plot       graphics filter
. . . . . . . + . post       send mail to users by name
. . . . . . . + + postnews   submit netnews articles
+ + + + + + + + + pr         print file
. . . . . . . . + prefer     maintain and use bibliographic refere\
	nces
. . . . . . + . . prep       prepare text for statistical processi\
	ng
. . . . . 6 . . . primes     print all primes larger than somewhat\
	 [factor]
. . . . . . L . . prom       read and write proms through the PROL\
	OG promwriter
. . + + . . . . . proof      compare text files [diff]
. . . . + + + + + prof       display profile data
. . 8 + + + + + + ps         process status
. 6 6 6 6 . + + + ptx        permuted index
. . . . . . + . . pubindex   make inverted bibliographic index [re\
	fer]
. . . . . . . + + push       datakit remote file copy
. . . . + + + + + pwd        working directory name
. . . . . . . + . pxp        pascal printer, profiler, and cross@\
	@@reference lister
. . . . . . . + + random     sample lines from a file or provide r\
	andom exit code
. . . . . . . + . ranlib     convert archives to random libraries \
	[ar]
. . . . . + . + . rc         Ratfor compiler [langs]
. . . . . . . + + readnews   read news articles
. . . . . . + + + refer      find and insert literature references\
	 in documents
. . . . . + + + + rev        reverse lines of a file
+ + + + + . . . . rew        rewind DECtape
+ . . . . . . . . rkd        dump disk to tape
+ . . . . . . . . rkf        format RK disk
+ . . . . . . . . rkl        load disk from tape
+ + + + + + + + + rm         remove (unlink) files
+ + + + + + . . . rmdir      remove (delete) directory [rm]
+ + + + + + + . . roff       format text
. . . . . . . + + ropy       remote file copy for arpa internet
. . . . . . . . + rscan      scan pages on ricoh scanner and displ\
	ay on 5620
+ . . . . . . . . sdate      adjust date and time
. . . . . . . + + sdb        symbolic debugger
Edition           Title      Purpose
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
. . . . . . L . . sdiff      side@@@by@@@side di\
	fference program
. . . . . . . . + seal       mailable data file
. . . . . . + + + sed        stream editor
. . . . . . . . + sendcover  send cover sheet to the library
. . . . . . . + + seq        print sequences of numbers
. . . . . . . + + server     run anonymous command on another mach\
	ine
. . . . 6 . . . . sfs        structured file scanner
+ + + + + + + + + sh         command language
. . + + + + . . . shift      adjust shell arguments [sh]
. . . . . . . + + ship       automatic software distribution
. . + + + + + + + size       size of an object file
. . . 6 6 6 L 7 7 sky        obtain ephemerides
. . . + + + + + + sleep      suspend execution for an interval
. . + + 6 6 L + . sno        compile Snobol programs [langs]
. . . . . . . + + snocone    snobol with syntactic sugar
6 + + + + + + + + sort       sort or merge files
. . + + 6 6 L . . speak      send words to voice synthesizer
. . . . + + + + + spell      find spelling errors
. . . . . . . + . spitbol    Snobol language compiler [langs]
. . . 6 6 6 + . . spline     interpolate smooth curve
. . + + + + + + + split      split a file into pieces
+ + + . . . . . . stat       get file status
+ + + + + + + + + strip      remove symbols and relocation bits
. . . . . . + + . struct     structure Fortran programs
. + + + + + + + + stty       set terminal options
. . . . . . . . + submit     install document in database
+ + + + + . + + + sum        sum and count blocks in a file
. . . . . . + + + tabs       set terminal tabs
. + . . . . . . . tacct      connect@@@time accounting
. . . . . . + + + tail       deliver the last part of a file
+ + + . . . . . . tap        manipulate DECtape
. . . . . . . + + tape       identify and manipulate magnetic tape
. . . . . . + + + tar        tape archiver
. . . . . 6 + + + tbl        format tables for nroff or troff
. . . . . . + . . tc         troff output interpreter
. . . . . . L . . tekstare   convert tektronix picture to hard cop\
	y graphics [can]
. . . . + + + + + tee        pipe fitting
. . . . . . . + . telnet     user interface to the telnet protocol
. . . . . . + + + test       condition command
. . . . . . . . + tex        text formatting and typesetting
. . + + + + + + + time       time a command
. . . . . . + + . tk         paginator for the Tektronix 4014
. 6 + 6 6 6 L . . tmg        compile tmgl program
. . . . . . + + + touch      update date last modified of a file
. . . + + + + . . tp         manipulate tape archive [tar]
. . . . + + + + + tr         translate characters
. . . . . . . + + trace      protocol compiler and analyzer
. . . . . . . + . track      selective remote file copy
. . . + + + + + + troff      text formatting and typesetting
. . . . . . + + + true       provide truth values
. . . . . . . + . tset       set terminal modes
. + + + + . L . . tss        communicate with MH@@@TSS (G\
	COS)
Edition           Title      Purpose
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
. . . . . . + + + tsort      topological sort
+ + + + + + + + + tty        get terminal name
+ + + + . . . . . type       print file on IBM 2741
. . + + + + L . . typo       find typographic errors
. . . . . . L . . ufs        Spider Network Communication
. . . . . . . + + ul         print underlines on screen terminals
+ + + . . . . . . un         fine undefined symbols
. . + + + + + + + uniq       report repeated lines in a file
. . . . . 6 + 7 7 units      conversion program
. . . . . + . . . usort      sort and merge files, discarding dupl\
	icate lines [sort]
. . . . . . + + + uucp       unix to unix copy
. . . . . . L . . uudiff     directory comparison between machines
. . . . . . . + + uustat     uucp status inquiry and job control
. . . . . . + + + uux        unix to unix command execution
. . . . . . L . . vc         verification of tests for C programs \
	[lcomp]
. . . . . . + + + vi         screen oriented (visual) display edit\
	or based on ex
. . . . . . . + + view2d     movie of a function f(x,y,t)
. . . . . . . + + vis        show invisible characters
. . . . . . . + . visi       mathematical spreadsheet
. . + . . . . . . vs         generate voice synthesizer phonemes
. . . + + + + . . wait       await completion of process [sh]
+ + + + + + + + + wc         word count
. . . . . . L . . wcheck     look for inconsistencies in a circuit\
	 description
+ + + + + + + + + who        who is on the system
. . . . . . L . . wrap       generate control information for wiri\
	ng a circuit board
+ + + + + + + + + write      write to another user
. . . . . . . + + wwb        writers workbench
. . . . . . . + + wwv        print and set the date from accurate \
	clock
. . . . . . L . . xref       cross reference for C programs
. . . . . . + + . xsend      secret mail
. . 6 6 6 + + + + yacc       yet another compiler@@@compi\
	ler

2. System calls

Edition           Title      Purpose
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
. . . . + + + + + intro      introduction to system calls and erro\
	r numbers
. . . . . . + + + access     determine accessibility of file
. . . . . . + + + acct       turn accounting on or off
. . . . . . + + + alarm      schedule signal after specified time
. . + . . . . + . boot       reboot the system
+ + + + + + . . . break      set program break [brk]
. . . . . . + + + brk        change core allocation
+ + + . . . . . . cemt       catch EMT traps [signal]
+ + + + + + + + + chdir      change default directory
+ + + + + + + + + chmod      change mode of file
+ + + + + + + + + chown      change owner and group of a file
+ + + + + + + + + close      close a file
+ + + + + + + + + creat      create a new file
. . + + + + . . . csw        read the console switches
. . . . . . . . + deprecated system calls to be avoided
. . + + + + + + + dup        duplicate an open file descriptor
Edition           Title      Purpose
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
+ + + + + + + + + exec       execute a file
+ + + + + + + + + exit       terminate process
. . . . . . . . + fmount     mount or remove file system
+ + + + + + + + + fork       spawn new process
. . + . . . . . . fpe        catch floating exception errors [sign\
	al]
+ + + + + + . . . fstat      status of open file [stat]
. . . + + + . . . getgid     get group identification [getuid]
. . . . . + + . . getpid     get process identification [getuid]
+ + + + + + + + + getuid     get user and group identity
. . . . . . . + . gmount     mount or remove non@@@standa\
	rd file system [fmount]
+ + + + + + . . . gtty       get typewrite mode [ioctl]
. + . . . . . . . hog        set low@@@priority status [n\
	ice]
+ + + . . . . . . ilgins     catch illegal instruction trap [signa\
	l]
. . . + + + + . . indir      indirect system call [syscall]
+ + + . . . . . . intr       catch or inhib interrupts [signal]
. . . . . . + + + ioctl      control device
. + + + + + + + + kill       send signal to a process
+ + + + + + + + + link       link to a file
. . . . . . + . . lock       lock a process in primary memory
. . . . . . + + + lseek      move read/write pointer
+ + + . . . . . + mkdir      create directory
. . . + + + + + + mknod      make a directory or a special file
+ + + + + + + + . mount      mount or remove file system [fmount]
. . . . . . + . . mpx        create and manipulate multiplexed fil\
	es
. . + + + + + + + nice       set program priority
+ + + + + + + + + open       open for reading or writing
. . . + . . + + + pause      stop until signal
. . . . . . + . . phys       allow a process to access physical ad\
	dresses
. . + + + + + + . pipe       create an interprocess channel
. . . . . . + . . pkon       establish packet protocol
. . . . + + + + + profil     execution time profile
. . . . . + + + . ptrace     process trace [proc(4)]
+ + + . . . . . . quit       catch or inhibit quits [signal]
+ + + + + + + + + read       read from file
+ + + . . . . . . rele       release processor
+ + + + + + . . . seek       move read or write pointer [lseek]
. . . . . . . + + select     synchronous I/O multiplexing
. . . + + + . . . setgid     set process group ID [setuid]
+ + + + + + + + + setuid     set user and group ID
+ + + . . . . . . smdate     set date modified of file [utime]
. . . + + + + + + signal     catch or ignore signals
. + + + + + . . . sleep      delay execution [alarm]
+ + + + + + + + + stat       get file status
+ + + + + + + + + stime      set time
+ + + + + + . . . stty       set mode of typewriter [ioctl]
. + + + + + + + + sync       update super@@@block
. . . . . . . + + syscall    indirect system call
+ + . . . . . . . tell       find read or write pointer [seek]
+ + + + + + + + + time       get date and time
. . + + + + + + + times      get process times
. . . . . . + + + umask      set file creation mode mask
+ + + + + + . . . umount     dismount file system [mount]
Edition           Title      Purpose
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
+ + + + + + + + + unlink     remove directory entry
. . . . . . + + + utime      set file times
+ + + + + + + + + wait       wait for process to terminate
+ + + + + + + + + write      write on a file

3. Subroutines

Edition           Title      Purpose
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
. . . . . . + + + intro      introduction to library functions
. . . . . + + + + abort      generate IOT fault
. . . . . + + . . abs        integer absolute value, sign function\
	 [arith]
. . . . . . . + + arith      integer arithmetic functions
. . . . + + . . . alloc      core allocator [malloc]
. . . . . . + + + assert     program verification
. + + + + + . . . atan       arctangent [sin]
+ + + + + + + + + atof       convert ASCII to numbers
+ + + . . + . . . atoi       convert ASCII to integer [atof]
. . . . . . . + + cbt        compressed B@@@tree subrouti\
	nes
. . . . . . . + + chrtab     simple character bitmaps
. . + + . . . . . compar     string compare for sort
. + . . . . . . . const      floating point constants
. . . . . 7 L . . cr         coroutine scheme
. . + + + + + + + crypt      DES encryption
+ + + + + + + + + ctime      convert date and time to ASCII
. . . . . . + + + ctype      character classification
. . . . . . . + + curses     screen functions with @@@opt\
	imal@@@ cursor motion
. . . . . . . + . db         database subroutines
. . . . . . + + + dbm        data base subroutines
. . . . . . . + + dialout    place call on ACU
. . . . . . . + + directory  directory operations
. . . . . . . + + dkmgr      establish datakit server
. . + . . . . . . ddsput     display characters on Picturephone
. . + + + + + + + ecvt       output conversion
. . . . . + + + + end        last locations in program
. . . . . . L + + erf        error function
+ + + + + + + + + exp        exponential, logarithm, power, square\
	 root
. . . . . . + + + fclose     close or flush a stream
. . . . . . + + + ferror     stream status inquiries
. . . . . . . . + fio        fast buffered I/O
. . . . + + + + + floor      absolute value, floor, ceiling functi\
	ons
. . . . . + . . . fmod       floating modulus function [floor]
. . . . . . + + + fopen      open a stream
+ + + + + + . . . fptrap     floating@@@point simulator
. . . . . . + + + fread      buffered binary input/output
. . . . . . + + + frexp      split into mantissa and exponent
. . . . . . + + + fseek      reposition a stream
+ + + . . . . . . ftoa       convert floating to ASCII [ecvt]
. . + . . . . . . ftoo       convert floating to octal
. . . . . . . + + ftw        file tree walk
. . . . . . L + + galloc     storage allocation with garbage colle\
	ction
. . . . + + L + + gamma      log gamma function
Edition           Title      Purpose
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
. + + + . . . . . gerts      communicate with GCOS
. . . . + + . + + getarg     get command arguments from Fortran
+ + + + + + + + + getc       get character or word from stream
. . . + + + . . . getchar    read character [getc]
. . . . . . + + + getenv     value for environment name
. . . . . . . . + getfields  break a string into fields
. . . . . . . + + getfsent   get file system descriptor file entry
. . . . . . + + + getgrent   get group file entry
. . . . . . + + + getlogin   get login name
. . . . . . . + + getopt     get option letter from argv
. . . . . . + + + getpass    read a password
. . . + + + + . . getpw      get name from UID
. . . . . . + + + getpwent   get password file entry
. . . . . . + + + gets       get a string from a stream
. . . . . . . + + getwd      get current directory
. . . + + + . . . hmul       high@@@order product
. + + + + . + + + hypot      euclidean distance
. . . + + + . . . ierror     catch Fortran errors
. . . . . . . . + internet   internet networking functions
. . . . . . . . + ipc        set up communications between unrelat\
	ed processes
. . . . . . + . . iread      insistent read
+ + + . . . . . . itoa       convert integer to ASCII
. . . . . . + + + j0         bessel functions
. . . . . . + + + l3tol      convert between 3@@@byte int\
	egers and long integers
. . . + + + . . . ldiv       long division
7 . . . . . . . . liba       standard assembly@@@language\
	 library
7 . . . . . . . . libb       standard B library
7 . . . . . . . . libf       standard Fortran library
. . . . . . + . . libr       remote file access
. . . . + + . . . locv       long output conversion [printf]
+ + + + + + . . . log        logarithm base e [exp]
. . . . . . + + + malloc     main memory allocator
. . . . . . L + + map        map projections
. . . . . . . + + memory     memory operations
+ + + + . . . . . mesg       print string on typewriter [printf]
. . . . . . + + + mktemp     make a unique file name
. . . . + + + + + monitor    prepare execution profile
. . . . . . + + + mp         multiple precision integer arithmetic
. . . + + + . . . nargs      argument count
. + + + + + + + + nlist      get entries from name list
. . . + + + + + + perror     system error messages
. . . . . . + . . pkopen     packet driver simulator
. . . . . . + + + plot       graphics interface
. . . . . . + + + popen      initiate I/O to/from a process
. . . . . . . + + port       mathematical library for Fortran
. . + + + + . . . pow        take powers of numbers [exp]
. . . . . . . . + print      print formatted output
. . . + + + + + . printf     output formatters
+ + + . . . . . . ptime      print time
. . . . . . . + + ptopen     find and open a pseudo@@@ter\
	minal file
+ + + + + + + + + putc       put character or word on a stream
. . . + + + . . . putchar    write character [putc]
Edition           Title      Purpose
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
. . . . . . + + + puts       put a string on a stream
. + + + + + + + + qsort      quicker sort
. . + + + + + + + rand       random number generator
. . . . . . . + . regex      regular expression handler [regexp]
. . . . . . . + + regexp     regular expression handler
. . . + + + . . . reset      execute non@@@local goto [se\
	tjmp]
. + + . . 7 L . . salloc     string allocation and manipulation
. . . . . . + + + scanf      formatted input conversion
. . . . . . + + + setbuf     assign buffering to a stream
. . . + + + . . . setfil     specify Fortran file name
. . . . . . + + + setjmp     non@@@local goto
+ + + + + + + + + sin        trigonometric functions
. . . . . . + + + sinh       hyperbolic functions
. . . . . . + + + sleep      suspend execution for interval
. + + + + + . . . sqrt       square root [exp]
. . . . . . + + + stdio      standard buffered input/output packag\
	e
. . . . . . + + + string     string operations
. . . . . . + + + swab       swap bytes
+ + + + . . . . . switch     transfer depending on value
. . . . . . + + + system     issue a shell command
. . . . . . . . + tcp        tcp networking functions
. . . . . . . + + tdkdial    open a datakit connection to a remote\
	 server
. . . . . . . + + termcap    terminal independent operation routin\
	es
. . . . . . . + + tolower    force upper or lower case
. . + + + + + + + ttyname    find name of a terminal
. . . . . . . . + udp        udp networking functions
. . . . . . . . + uname      get password file entry
. . . . . . + + + ungetc     push character back into input stream
. . . . . . . + + varargs    variable argument list
. . . . . . . + + view2d     movie of a function f(x,y,t)
. . . + + . . . . vt         display (vt01) interface

4. Special files

Terminology  changed  often in this section.  In v3 mnemonic
names were replaced by pallid  hardware  part  designations,
For  example  tty  became  kl and ppt became pc.  Lately the
trend has reversed, with the appearance of drum and cons.

Edition           Title      Purpose
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
. . . . . . . + + bufld      buffering line discipline
. . . . . . . . + connld     connection line discipline
. . . . . . . + + cons       console interface
. . . + + + + . . cat        phototypesetter interface
. . . + . . . . . da         voice response unit
. . . + + + . . . dc         remote typewriter
. . . . + + . . . dh         DH@@@11 communications multi\
	plexor
. . . . . . L + + dk         Datakit interface
. + + + + + + . . dn         DN@@@11 ACU interface
. . . . . . . + + drum       paging device
. + + + + + . . . dp         201 dataphone
Edition           Title      Purpose
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
. . . . . . + . . du         DU@@@11 201 data@@@\
	phone interface
. . . . . . . + + fd         file descriptor file
. . . . . + + . . hp         RH@@@11/RP04, RP05, RP06 mov\
	ing@@@head disk
. . . . . + + . . hs         RH11/RS03@@@RS04 fixed@@\
	@head disk file
. . . . . + + . . ht         RH@@@11/TU@@@16 mag\
	tape interface
. . + + + + . . . kl         console typewriter [cons]
. + . . + + . . . lpr        line printer
. . . . . . . + + mesgld     message line discipline
+ + + + + + + + . mem        core memory
. . . . . . . + + mt         magtape interface
. . . . . + + + + null       data sink [under mem in v5]
. . + + + + . . . pc         punched paper tape
. . . . . . + . . pk         packet driver
+ + . . . . . . . ppt        punched paper tape [pc]
. . . . . . . + + proc       process file system
. . . . . . . + + pt         interprocess I/O junctor files
. . . . . . . + + ra         DEC MSCP disks (RA60, RA80, RA81)
+ + + + + + + . . rf         RF11/RS11 fixed@@@head disk \
	file
+ + + + + + + + . rk         RK@@@11/RK03 or RK05 disk
. + + + + + + . . rp         RP@@@11/RP03 moving@@@\
	head disk
. . . . . . . + + stream     stream I/O control calls
+ + + . . . . . . tap        DECtape file
. . . + + + + . . tc         TC@@@11/TU56 DECtape
. . . + + . L . . tiu        Spider interface
. + + + + + + . . tm         TM@@@11/TU@@@10 mag\
	tape interface [mt]
+ + . . . . . . . tty        console typewriter [kl]
. . . . + + + . + tty        general terminal interface [ttyld]
+ + . . . . . . . tty0...    remote typewrite [dc]
. . . . . . . + + ttyld      terminal processing
. . . . . . + . . vp         Versatec printer@@@plotter
. . . + + . L . . vs         voice synthesizer interface
. . + + + . . . . vt         storage@@@tube display

5. File formats and conventions

In v1@@@v5, section 5 was restricted to @@@@@\
	@File formats@@@@@@

Edition           Title      Purpose
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
+ + + + + + + + + a.out      assembler and link editor output
. . . . . . + + + acct       execution accounting file
+ + + + + + + + + ar         archive (library) file format
. . . . . . . . + backup     incremental backup file
+ . . . . . . . . bppt       binary paper tape format
+ + + + + + + + + core       format of core image file
. . . . . . L . + cpio       format of cpio archive
+ + + + + + + + + dir        format of directories
. . . . + + + . . dump       incremental dump format
. . . . . . + + + environ    user environment
. . . . . . + . . file.g     drawing editor file format
+ + + + + + + + + filsys     format of file system volume
. . . . . . . + + fstab      static information about the file sys\
	tem
Edition           Title      Purpose
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
. . . . . + + + + group      group file
. + . . . . . . . ident      GCOD ident cards
. . . . . . + + + map        digitized map formats
. . . . . . + . . mpxio      multiplexed i/o
. . . . + + + + + mtab       mounted file system table
. . . . . . . + . news       USENET network news article, utility \
	files
. . . . . . . + . newsrc     information file for readnews
+ + + + + + + + + passwd     password file
. . . . . 7 + + + plot       graphics interface
. . . . . . . . + polyhedra  database format
. . . . + . . . . speak.m    voice synthesizer vocabulary
. . . . . . . + + stab       symbol table types
. . . . . . L . . tar        format of tar archive
. . . . . . . + + termcap    terminal capability database
. + + + + + + . . tp         DEC/mag tape formats
. . . . + + + + + ttys       terminal initialization data
. . . . . . . + + types      primitive system types
+ + . . . . . . . uids       map names to user ID@@@s [pa\
	sswd]
+ + + + + + + + + utmp       login records
. . . . . . . + + view2d     movie of a function f(x,y,t)
. . . . . . . + + whoami     computer name
. + + + + + . . . wtmp       accounting files [utmp]

6. Games

In v1 through v6 chapter  6  was  called  @@@@@@\
	User  maintained
maintained  programs.@@@@@@   Only the games fro\
	m those editions
are listed here; other  pages  from  those  chapters  6  are
listed with chapter 1 or chapter 7.

Edition           Title      Purpose
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
. . . . . . L + + adventure  dungeon@@@exploration game
. . . . . . + + + arithmetic provide drill in number facts
. . . . . . . + + atc        air traffic controller
. . . . . . + + + backgammon the game
. . . . . . + + + banner     make long posters
1 . . . . . + + + bcd        convert to antique media
+ + + + + + + . . bj         the game of black jack
. . . . . . . + + boggle     word games
. . . . . . . + + bridge     card game
. . . . . . . + + card       card games
. . . . . . + . . checkers   game
+ . . + + + + . . chess      the game of chess
. . . . . . + + . ching      the book of changes and other cookies
. . . + + + . . . cubic      three dimensional tic@@@tac@\
	@@toe
. . . . . . . + + doctor     psychiatric consultation
. . . . . . . . + festoon    memo writer
. . . . . . . + . fortune    cookies
. . . + + . + . . maze       generate a maze problem
+ + . + + + + . . moo        guessing game
. . . . . . L . . morse      convert letters to morse code
Edition           Title      Purpose
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
. . . . . . L . . psych      pattern generators
. . . . . + + + + quiz       test your knowledge
. . . . . . + . . reversi    a game of dramatic reversals
. . . . . . . + + snake      display chase game
. . . . . . L + + trek       war games
. . . . . . . + + worms      silly demos
+ + . + + 6 + . . ttt        tic@@@tac@@@toe
. . . . . . + . . words      word games [boggle]
. . . . + + + . . wump       the game of hunt@@@the@@\
	@wumpus

7. Data bases and language conventions

Chapter 7 has had many names:

     v1@@@v5     Miscellaneous
     v6   User maintained subroutines
     v7   Macro packages and language conventions
     v8@@@v9     Databases and language conventions

Edition           Title      Purpose
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
. . . . . . . + + apnews     present ap wire stories
+ + + + + 5 + + + ascii      map of ASCII character set
. . . . . . . + . candest    canon laser printers [can(1)]
. . . . . . L . . cdl        circuit description language
. . . . . . . + + dict       look up words in English dictionaries
. . . . . . + + + eqnchar    special character definitions for eqn
. . . . . . . + + font       typesetter fonts
. . + + + 5 + . . greek      graphics for extended HdY@@@\
	37 type@@@box
. . . . . . + . . hier       file system hierarchy
+ + . . . . . . . kbd        map of HdY 37 keyboard
. . . . . . . + + library    bell labs library service
+ + . . . . . . . login      logging on and logging off the system
. . . . . . . + + mail       address conventions and rewrite rules
. . . . . . + + + man        macros to typeset manual
. . . . . . L + + map        draw maps on various projections
. . . . . . . . + mbits      macros for typesetting bitmaps
. . . . . . . + + mcs        macros for formatting cover sheets
. . . . . + + + + ms         macros for formatting manuscripts
. . . . . . . . + papers     browse database of locally authored p\
	apers
. . . . . . . . + netnews    recent articles, utility files
. . . . . . . . + poly       database of polyhedra
+ . . . . . . . . suftab     roff@@@s suffix table
+ + + + + 5 . . . tabs       set tab stops on typewrite [tabs(1)]
. . . . . . . + + tel        local and private telephone books
. . . . . . . + . telno      retrieve from bell labs phone book [t\
	el]
. . . . . . + + . term       conventional names
. . . + + . . . . tmheader   TM cover sheet
. . . . . . . + + town       gazetteer of US places
. . . . . . . + + troff      addenda to troff manual
. . + + + . L . . vsp        voice synthesizer phonemes
. . . . . . . + + weather    conditions and forecast by town
Edition           Title      Purpose
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

8. Maintenance commands and procedures

Pages  from  chapter  1  of  v1, v2, and v7 that appeared in
chapter 8 of other editions are included here.  In v1 and v2
there  was  no  chapter  8 and in v7 many system maintenance
commands were placed in chapter 1, with  the  identification
@@@@@@1M@@@@@@.

Chapter  8 is the most turbulent part of the manual: mainte@@\
	@
nance procedures, being known only to a few, and often being
embedded  in  just  one  or  two  shell  scripts may be more
lightly changed than mainstream facilities.  Moreover,  much
of  chapter  8  is concerned with hidden procedures that are
usually invoked automatically.

It has alway been problematic just how  much  to  say  about
such  changeable  things  that  so  few  people need to know
about.  Maintenance programs may remain  @@@@@@u\
	nofficial@@@@@@  for
years.   For  example,  one or another version of findo, for
scouring trash out of full file systems, had  existed  since
the earliest days, yet it was not documented until v8.

Edition           Title      Purpose
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
. . . . . . . + + 11         pdp11 support
. . + + + . . . . 20boot     rebooot 11/20 system
. . . . . + 1 + + ac         login accounting
. . . . . . . . + arff       read RT11 files
+ . . . . . . . . as2        assembler@@@s pass 2
. . . . . . . + + asd        automatic software distribution
+ . . . . . . . . ba         B assembler
. . . . . . . . + backup     backup administration
+ . . . . . . . . bc         B compiler
+ . . . . . . . . bilib      B interpreter
+ + + + + + + . . boot       startup procedures [reboot]
+ . . . . . . . . brt1,brt2  B start and finish
. 6 . . . . . . . chash      prepare symbol table lem
1 1 + + + . . . . check      check consistency of file system [ich\
	eck]
. . . . . + . . . chgrp      change group [chown]
. . 1 + + + 1 + + clri       clear i@@@node
. . . . . . . . + config     configure a Unix kernel
. . . . . . . + + cpp        C language preprocessor
. . . . . + + . . crash      what to do when the system crashes
. . . . . + + + + cron       clock daemon
. . + . . + 1 . . dcheck     file system directory consistency che\
	ck [icheck]
. . . . . . . + + dmesg      system diagnostic messages
. 1 7 7 + + L . . dpd        dataphone daemons
. . . . + + 1 . . dump       incremental file system dump
+ . . . . . . . . f1,f2,f3,f4Fortran compiler passes
. . . . . . L . . fget.demon fget daemons
. . . . . . . + + finddev    find process using a device
Edition           Title      Purpose
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
. . . . . . . + + findo      find objectionable files
. . . . . . . + + fsck       file system consistency check and int\
	eractive repair
. + + 7 + + + + + getty      set typewriter mode
+ + + 7 + + . . . glob       argument expander
. . . . . + 1 + + icheck     file system storage consistency check
. + + + + + + + + init       process control initialization
. . . + . . . . . ino        get the i@@@number of a file
. 1 + . . . . . . istat      file status by i@@@number
. . . . . . . . + ldpcs      load correct microcode
. . . . + + L + + lpd        line printer daemon
. . . . . . + + + makekey    generate encryption key
. . . . . . . . + mgrproc    service remote computing requests
. . . . . . + . . mkconf     generate configuration tables [config\
	]
1 . . + + + 1 + + mkfs       construct a file system
. . . + + + 1 + + mknod      build special file
1 1 + + + + 1 + + mount      mount and dismount file system
+ + + + + . . . . msh        mini Shell
. . . . . + 1 . . ncheck     generate names from i@@@numb\
	ers [icheck]
. . . . . . . + + netfs      network file system
. . . . . . . + + netstat    show network status for ARPA internet
. . . . . . . + + oops       process status
. . . . . . 1 + + pstat      print system facts
. . . . . . 1 + + quot       summarize file system ownership
. . . . . . . + + rarepl     replace bad blocks on MSCP drive
. . . . . . . + + rc         boot script
. . . . . . . + + reboot     bootstrapping procedures
. . 1 + + . . . . reloc      relocate object files
. . . . . . . + + renice     alter priority of running process by \
	changing nice
. . . . + + 1 . . restor     incremental file system restore
. . . . . . . + . rmdir      unlink directory
. . . . + + 1 + + sa         system accounting
. 1 + . . . . . . salv       repair damaged file system
. . . . . . . + + savecore   save a core dump of the operating sys\
	tem
. . . . . . . + + showq      state of stream I/O system
. . . . . . . . + smash      rewrite bad disk sectors
1 1 + + + + 1 + + su         substitute user id temporarily
. . . . . . . + + swapon     specify paging/swapping device
. . . + + + + + + sync       update the super block
. . + . . . . . . swtmp      truncate accounting file
1 1 + . . . . . . tm         get time information
1 1 + + + + . . . umount     dismount removable file system [mount\
	]
. . . . . . . + + upas       address driven mailer
. . . + + + + + + update     periodically update the super block
. . . . . . . + + uucheck    check uucp directories and permission\
	s file
. . . . . . . + + uucico     file transport program for the uucp s\
	ystem
. . . . . . L + + uuclean    uucp spool directory cleanup
. . . . . . . + . uusched    uucp file transport scheduler [uucico\
	]
. . . . . . . + + uuxqt      create remote command requests
. . . . . . . + + vmstat     report virtual memory statistics
. . . . . + 1 + + wall       write to all users
. . . . . . . + . xstr       preprocessor for sharing strings in C\
	 programs
9. Teletype 5620@@@related software

Edition           Title      Purpose
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
. . . . . . . + + intro      introduction to jerq@@@relat\
	ed software
9.1 Commands
. . . . . . . + + 32ld       bootstrap loader for the 5620
. . . . . . . + + 3cc        MAC@@@32 compiler for the 56\
	20
. . . . . . . + + blitblt    make hard copy image
. . . . . . . . + brush      painting program
. . . . . . . + + cip        picture drawing program
. . . . . . . + + face       show faces on a jerq
. . . . . . . . + flicks     movie graphics for 5620
. . . . . . . . + getfont    replace terminal@@@s default\
	 font
. . . . . . . + + icon       icon editor
. . . . . . . + + jf         font editor
. . . . . . . + . jim        text editor [sam]
. . . . . . . + + jx         jerq execution and stdio interpreter
. . . . . . . + + graphdraw  edit (combinatoric) graph
. . . . . . . + + lens       bitmap magnifier
. . . . . . . . + menudrop   leave a menu lying around
. . . . . . . + + mugs       convert gray@@@scale images \
	into icons
. . . . . . . + + mux        layer multiplexor for the jerq
. . . . . . . + + paint      draw pictures in a layer
. . . . . . . + + ped        picture editor
. . . . . . . + + pi         process inspector
. . . . . . . + + pico       graphics editor
. . . . . . . + + proof      troff output interpreter for jerq
. . . . . . . . + pvmon      gray@@@scale picture preview\
	 window for 5620
. . . . . . . . + reader     examine typeset documents
. . . . . . . + + rebecca    graphics touch@@@up editor
. . . . . . . + + ruler      measure things on the screen
. . . . . . . + . sysmon     display system statistics [vismon]
. . . . . . . . + sam        screen editor with structural regular\
	 expressions
. . . . . . . + + term       nonstandard mux terminals
. . . . . . . + + thinkblt   print on ThinkJet
. . . . . . . . + vismon     system statistics and mail notificati\
	on
. . . . . . . + + windows    create and initialize windows
9.2 System calls
. . . . . . . + + button     mouse control
. . . . . . . + + newlayer   layer control and graphics
. . . . . . . + + newproc    jerq process control
. . . . . . . + + request    jerq I/O requests
9.3 Subroutines
. . . . . . . + + add        arithmetic on points and rectangles
. . . . . . . + + alloc      allocate memory
. . . . . . . + + bitblt     basic jerq graphics functions
. . . . . . . + + circle     circle drawing functions for jerq
. . . . . . . + + cos        integer math functions
. . . . . . . + + menuhit    present user with menu and get select\
	ion
. . . . . . . + + string     jerq text and font operations
. . . . . . . . + thinkclientThinkJet routines
9.4 Devices
. . . . . . . + + jioctl     jerq ioctl requests
. . . . . . . + + mouse      jerq mouse interface
Edition           Title      Purpose
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
9.5 File formats and conventions
. . . . . . . + + bitfile    format of bitmap file
. . . . . . . + + faced      network face server
. . . . . . . + + font       jerq font layouts
. . . . . . . . + movies     graphics movie file formats
. . . . . . . + + pads       user interface package
. . . . . . . + + types      basic jerq graphics data types
9.6 Games
. . . . . . . + + crabs      graphical marine adventure game
. . . . . . . + + demo       graphic demonstration and games
. . . . . . . . + gebaca     get back at corporate america
. . . . . . . + + pen        doodle anywhere on the screen
. . . . . . . . + pengo      squash the sno@@@bees
. . . . . . . + + twid       dabble in oils
9.7 Data bases
. . . . . . . + + blitmap    map plots and path finding on a jerq










































^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 3+ messages in thread

end of thread, back to index

Thread overview: 3+ messages (download: mbox.gz / follow: Atom feed)
-- links below jump to the message on this page --
2020-02-05 19:16 [TUHS] System Call History Jon Steinhart
2020-02-05 21:52 ` Warren Toomey
2020-02-06 14:33 Doug McIlroy

The Unix Heritage Society mailing list

Archives are clonable: git clone --mirror http://inbox.vuxu.org/tuhs

Example config snippet for mirrors

Newsgroup available over NNTP:
	nntp://inbox.vuxu.org/vuxu.archive.tuhs


AGPL code for this site: git clone https://public-inbox.org/public-inbox.git