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COMMENT(!MOD!zsh/zutil
Some utility builtins, e.g. the one for supporting configuration via 
styles.
!MOD!)
cindex(builtins, utility)
The tt(zsh/zutil) module only adds some builtins:

startitem()
findex(zstyle)
xitem(tt(zstyle) [ tt(-L) [ var(metapattern) [ var(style) ] ] ])
xitem(tt(zstyle) [ tt(-e) | tt(-) | tt(-)tt(-) ] var(pattern) var(style) var(string) ...)
xitem(tt(zstyle -d) [ var(pattern) [ var(style) ... ] ])
xitem(tt(zstyle -g) var(name) [ var(pattern) [ var(style) ] ])
xitem(tt(zstyle -){tt(a)|tt(b)|tt(s)} var(context) var(style) var(name) [ var(sep) ])
xitem(tt(zstyle -){tt(T)|tt(t)} var(context) var(style) [ var(string) ... ])
item(tt(zstyle -m) var(context) var(style) var(pattern))(
This builtin command is used to define and lookup styles.  Styles are
pairs of names and values, where the values consist of any number of
strings.  They are stored together with patterns and lookup is done by
giving a string, called the `em(context)', which is matched against the
patterns.  The definition stored for the most specific pattern that matches
will be returned.

A pattern is considered to be more specific
than another if it contains more components (substrings separated by
colons) or if the patterns for the components are more specific, where 
simple strings are considered to be more specific than patterns and
complex patterns are considered to be more specific than the pattern
`tt(*)'.  A `tt(*)' in the pattern will match zero or more characters
in the context; colons are not treated specially in this regard.
If two patterns are equally specific, the tie is broken in favour of
the pattern that was defined first.

em(Example)

For example, to define your preferred form of precipitation depending on which
city you're in, you might set the following in your tt(zshrc):

example(zstyle ':weather:europe:*' preferred-precipitation rain
zstyle ':weather:europe:germany:* preferred-precipitation none
zstyle ':weather:europe:germany:*:munich' preferred-precipitation snow)

Then, the fictional `tt(weather)' plugin might run under the hood a command
such as

example(zstyle -s ":weather:${continent}:${country}:${county}:${city}" preferred-precipitation REPLY)

in order to retrieve your preference into the scalar variable tt($REPLY).

em(Usage)

The forms that operate on patterns are the following.

startitem()
item(tt(zstyle) [ tt(-L) [ var(metapattern) [ var(style) ] ] ])(
Without arguments, lists style definitions.  Styles
are shown in alphabetic order and patterns are shown in the order
tt(zstyle) will test them.

If the tt(-L) option is given, listing is done in the form of calls to
tt(zstyle).  The optional first argument, var(metapattern), is a pattern which
will be matched against the string supplied as var(pattern) when the style was
defined.  Note:
this means, for example, `tt(zstyle -L ":completion:*")' will
match any supplied pattern beginning `tt(:completion:)', not
just tt(":completion:*"):  use tt(':completion:\*') to match that.
The optional second argument limits the output to a specific var(style) (not a
pattern).  tt(-L) is not compatible with any other options.
)
item(tt(zstyle) [ tt(-) | tt(-)tt(-) | tt(-e) ] var(pattern) var(style) var(string) ...)(
vindex(reply, use of)
Defines the given var(style) for the var(pattern) with the var(string)s as
the value.  If the tt(-e) option is given, the var(string)s will be
concatenated (separated by spaces) and the resulting string will be
evaluated (in the same way as it is done by the tt(eval) builtin
command) when the style is looked up.  In this case the parameter
`tt(reply)' must be assigned to set the strings returned after the
evaluation.  Before evaluating the value, tt(reply) is unset, and
if it is still unset after the evaluation, the style is treated as if
it were not set.
)
item(tt(zstyle -d) [ var(pattern) [ var(style) ... ] ])(
Delete style definitions. Without arguments all definitions are deleted,
with a var(pattern) all definitions for that pattern are deleted and if
any var(style)s are given, then only those styles are deleted for the
var(pattern).
)
item(tt(zstyle -g) var(name) [ var(pattern) [ var(style) ] ])(
Retrieve a style definition. The var(name) is
used as the name of an array in which the results are stored. Without
any further arguments, all patterns defined are returned. With a
var(pattern) the styles defined for that pattern are returned and with 
both a var(pattern) and a var(style), the value strings of that
combination is returned.
)
enditem()

The other forms can be used to look up or test styles for a given context.

startitem()
item(tt(zstyle -s) var(context) var(style) var(name) [ var(sep) ])(
The parameter var(name) is set to the value of the style interpreted as a
string.  If the value contains several strings they are concatenated with
spaces (or with the var(sep) string if that is given) between them.

Return tt(0) if the style is set, tt(1) otherwise.
)
item(tt(zstyle -b) var(context) var(style) var(name))(
The value is stored in var(name) as a boolean, i.e. as the string
`tt(yes)' if the value has only one string and that string is equal to one
of `tt(yes)', `tt(true)', `tt(on)', or `tt(1)'. If the value is any other
string or has more than one string, the parameter is set to `tt(no)'.

Return tt(0) if var(name) is set to `tt(yes)', tt(1) otherwise.
)
item(tt(zstyle -a) var(context) var(style) var(name))(
The value is stored in var(name) as an array. If var(name) is declared 
as an associative array,  the first, third, etc. strings are used as the
keys and the other strings are used as the values.

Return tt(0) if the style is set, tt(1) otherwise.
)
xitem(tt(zstyle -t) var(context) var(style) [ var(string) ... ])
item(tt(zstyle -T) var(context) var(style) [ var(string) ... ])(
Test the value of a style, i.e. the tt(-t) option only returns a status
(sets tt($?)).  Without any var(string) the return status is zero if the
style is defined for at least one matching pattern, has only one string in
its value, and that is equal to one of `tt(true)', `tt(yes)', `tt(on)' or
`tt(1)'. If any var(string)s are given the status is zero if and only if
at least one of the var(string)s is equal to at least one of the strings
in the value. If the style is defined but doesn't match, the return status
is tt(1). If the style is not defined, the status is tt(2).

The tt(-T) option tests the values of the style like tt(-t), but it
returns status zero (rather than tt(2)) if the style is not defined for any
matching pattern.
)
item(tt(zstyle -m) var(context) var(style) var(pattern))(
Match a value. Returns status zero if the 
var(pattern) matches at least one of the strings in the value.
)
enditem()
)
findex(zformat)
xitem(tt(zformat -f) var(param) var(format) var(spec) ...)
item(tt(zformat -a) var(array) var(sep) var(spec) ...)(
This builtin provides two different forms of formatting. The first form 
is selected with the tt(-f) option. In this case the var(format)
string will be modified by replacing sequences starting with a percent 
sign in it with strings from the var(spec)s.  Each var(spec) should be
of the form `var(char)tt(:)var(string)' which will cause every
appearance of the sequence `tt(%)var(char)' in var(format) to be replaced 
by the var(string).  The `tt(%)' sequence may also contain optional
minimum and maximum field width specifications between the `tt(%)' and 
the `var(char)' in the form `tt(%)var(min)tt(.)var(max)tt(c)',
i.e. the minimum field width is given first and if the maximum field
width is used, it has to be preceded by a dot.  Specifying a minimum field
width makes the result be padded with spaces to the right if the
var(string) is shorter than the requested width.  Padding to the left
can be achieved by giving a negative minimum field width.  If a maximum 
field width is specified, the var(string) will be truncated after that
many characters.  After all `tt(%)' sequences for the given var(spec)s
have been processed, the resulting string is stored in the parameter
var(param).

The tt(%)-escapes also understand ternary expressions in the form used by
prompts.  The tt(%) is followed by a `tt(LPAR())' and then an ordinary
format specifier character as described above.  There may be a set of
digits either before or after the `tt(LPAR())'; these specify a test
number, which defaults to zero.  Negative numbers are also allowed.  An
arbitrary delimiter character follows the format specifier, which is
followed by a piece of `true' text, the delimiter character again, a piece
of `false' text, and a closing parenthesis.  The complete expression
(without the digits) thus looks like
`tt(%LPAR())var(X)tt(.)var(text1)tt(.)var(text2)tt(RPAR())', except that
the `tt(.)' character is arbitrary.  The value given for the format
specifier in the var(char)tt(:)var(string) expressions is evaluated as a
mathematical expression, and compared with the test number.  If they are
the same, var(text1) is output, else var(text2) is output.  A parenthesis
may be escaped in var(text2) as tt(%RPAR()).  Either of var(text1) or
var(text2) may contain nested tt(%)-escapes.

For example:

example(zformat -f REPLY "The answer is '%3(c.yes.no)'." c:3)

outputs "The answer is 'yes'." to tt(REPLY) since the value for the format
specifier tt(c) is 3, agreeing with the digit argument to the ternary
expression.

The second form, using the tt(-a) option, can be used for aligning
strings.  Here, the var(spec)s are of the form
`var(left)tt(:)var(right)' where `var(left)' and `var(right)' are
arbitrary strings.  These strings are modified by replacing the colons
by the var(sep) string and padding the var(left) strings with spaces 
to the right so that the var(sep) strings in the result (and hence the 
var(right) strings after them) are all aligned if the strings are
printed below each other.  All strings without a colon are left
unchanged and all strings with an empty var(right) string have the
trailing colon removed.  In both cases the lengths of the strings
are not used to determine how the other strings are to be aligned.
A colon in the var(left) string can be escaped with a backslash.
The resulting strings are stored in the var(array).
)
findex(zregexparse)
item(tt(zregexparse))(
This implements some internals of the tt(_regex_arguments) function.
)
findex(zparseopts)
item(tt(zparseopts) [ tt(-D) tt(-E) tt(-F) tt(-K) tt(-M) ] [ tt(-a) var(array) ] [ tt(-A) var(assoc) ] [ tt(-) ] var(spec) ...)(
This builtin simplifies the parsing of options in positional parameters,
i.e. the set of arguments given by tt($*).  Each var(spec) describes one
option and must be of the form `var(opt)[tt(=)var(array)]'.  If an option
described by var(opt) is found in the positional parameters it is copied
into the var(array) specified with the tt(-a) option; if the optional
`tt(=)var(array)' is given, it is instead copied into that array, which
should be declared as a normal array and never as an associative array.

Note that it is an error to give any var(spec) without an
`tt(=)var(array)' unless one of the tt(-a) or tt(-A) options is used.

Unless the tt(-E) option is given, parsing stops at the first string
that isn't described by one of the var(spec)s.  Even with tt(-E),
parsing always stops at a positional parameter equal to `tt(-)' or
`tt(-)tt(-)'. See also tt(-F).

The var(opt) description must be one of the following.  Any of the special
characters can appear in the option name provided it is preceded by a
backslash.

startitem()
xitem(var(name))
item(var(name)tt(+))(
The var(name) is the name of the option without the leading `tt(-)'.  To
specify a GNU-style long option, one of the usual two leading `tt(-)' must
be included in var(name); for example, a `tt(-)tt(-file)' option is
represented by a var(name) of `tt(-file)'.

If a `tt(+)' appears after var(name), the option is appended to var(array)
each time it is found in the positional parameters; without the `tt(+)'
only the em(last) occurrence of the option is preserved.

If one of these forms is used, the option takes no argument, so parsing
stops if the next positional parameter does not also begin with `tt(-)'
(unless the tt(-E) option is used).
)
xitem(var(name)tt(:))
xitem(var(name)tt(:-))
item(var(name)tt(::))(
If one or two colons are given, the option takes an argument; with one
colon, the argument is mandatory and with two colons it is optional.  The
argument is appended to the var(array) after the option itself.

An optional argument is put into the same array element as the option name
(note that this makes empty strings as arguments indistinguishable).  A
mandatory argument is added as a separate element unless the `tt(:-)' form
is used, in which case the argument is put into the same element.

A `tt(+)' as described above may appear between the var(name) and the
first colon.
)
enditem()

In all cases, option-arguments must appear either immediately following the
option in the same positional parameter or in the next one. Even an optional
argument may appear in the next parameter, unless it begins with a `tt(-)'.
There is no special handling of `tt(=)' as with GNU-style argument parsers;
given the var(spec) `tt(-foo:)', the positional parameter `tt(-)tt(-foo=bar)'
is parsed as `tt(-)tt(-foo)' with an argument of `tt(=bar)'.

When the names of two options that take no arguments overlap, the longest one
wins, so that parsing for the var(spec)s `tt(-foo -foobar)' (for example) is
unambiguous. However, due to the aforementioned handling of option-arguments,
ambiguities may arise when at least one overlapping var(spec) takes an
argument, as in `tt(-foo: -foobar)'. In that case, the last matching
var(spec) wins.

The options of tt(zparseopts) itself cannot be stacked because, for
example, the stack `tt(-DEK)' is indistinguishable from a var(spec) for
the GNU-style long option `tt(-)tt(-DEK)'.  The options of tt(zparseopts)
itself are:

startitem()
item(tt(-a) var(array))(
As described above, this names the default array in which to store the
recognised options.
)
item(tt(-A) var(assoc))(
If this is given, the options and their values are also put into an
associative array with the option names as keys and the arguments (if any)
as the values.
)
item(tt(-D))(
If this option is given, all options found are removed from the positional
parameters of the calling shell or shell function, up to but not including
any not described by the var(spec)s.  If the first such parameter is `tt(-)'
or `tt(-)tt(-)', it is removed as well.  This is similar to using the
tt(shift) builtin.
)
item(tt(-E))(
This changes the parsing rules to em(not) stop at the first string
that isn't described by one of the var(spec)s.  It can be used to test
for or (if used together with tt(-D)) extract options and their
arguments, ignoring all other options and arguments that may be in the
positional parameters.  As indicated above, parsing still stops at the
first `tt(-)' or `tt(-)tt(-)' not described by a var(spec), but it is not
removed when used with tt(-D).
)
item(tt(-F))(
If this option is given, tt(zparseopts) immediately stops at the first
option-like parameter not described by one of the var(spec)s, prints an
error message, and returns status 1.  Removal (tt(-D)) and extraction
(tt(-E)) are not performed, and option arrays are not updated.  This
provides basic validation for the given options.

Note that the appearance in the positional parameters of an option without
its required argument always aborts parsing and returns an error as described
above regardless of whether this option is used.
)
item(tt(-K))(
With this option, the arrays specified with the tt(-a) option and with the
`tt(=)var(array)' forms are kept unchanged when none of the var(spec)s for
them is used.  Otherwise the entire array is replaced when any of the
var(spec)s is used.  Individual elements of associative arrays specified
with the tt(-A) option are preserved by tt(-K).  This allows assignment of
default values to arrays before calling tt(zparseopts).
)
item(tt(-M))(
This changes the assignment rules to implement a map among equivalent
option names.  If any var(spec) uses the `tt(=)var(array)' form, the
string var(array) is interpreted as the name of another var(spec),
which is used to choose where to store the values.  If no other var(spec)
is found, the values are stored as usual.  This changes only the way the
values are stored, not the way tt($*) is parsed, so results may be
unpredictable if the `var(name)tt(+)' specifier is used inconsistently.
)
enditem()

For example,

example(set -- -a -bx -c y -cz baz -cend
zparseopts a=foo b:=bar c+:=bar)

will have the effect of

example(foo=(-a)
bar=(-b x -c y -c z))

The arguments from `tt(baz)' on will not be used.

As an example for the tt(-E) option, consider:

example(set -- -a x -b y -c z arg1 arg2
zparseopts -E -D b:=bar)

will have the effect of

example(bar=(-b y)
set -- -a x -c z arg1 arg2)

I.e., the option tt(-b) and its arguments are taken from the
positional parameters and put into the array tt(bar).

The tt(-M) option can be used like this:

example(set -- -a -bx -c y -cz baz -cend
zparseopts -A bar -M a=foo b+: c:=b)

to have the effect of

example(foo=(-a)
bar=(-a '' -b xyz))
)
enditem()
debug log:

solving 24aebdfaf ...
found 24aebdfaf in https://git.vuxu.org/mirror/zsh/

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