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COMMENT(!MOD!zsh/system
A builtin interface to various low-level system features.
!MOD!)
The tt(zsh/system) module makes available various builtin commands and
parameters.

subsect(Builtins)

startitem()
findex(syserror)
item(tt(syserror) [ tt(-e) var(errvar) ] [ tt(-p) var(prefix) ] [ var(errno) | var(errname) ])(
This command prints out the error message associated with var(errno), a
system error number, followed by a newline to standard error.

Instead of the error number, a name var(errname), for example
tt(ENOENT), may be used.  The set of names is the same as the contents
of the array tt(errnos), see below.

If the string var(prefix) is given, it is printed in front of the error
message, with no intervening space.

If var(errvar) is supplied, the entire message, without a newline, is
assigned to the parameter names var(errvar) and nothing is output.

A return status of 0 indicates the message was successfully printed
(although it may not be useful if the error number was out of the
system's range), a return status of 1 indicates an error in the
parameters, and a return status of 2 indicates the error name was
not recognised (no message is printed for this).
)
findex(sysopen)
redef(SPACES)(0)(tt(ifztexi(NOTRANS(@ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ ))ifnztexi(        )))
xitem(tt(sysopen) [ tt(-arw) ] [ tt(-m) var(permissions) ] [ tt(-o) var(options) ])
item(SPACES()tt(-u) var(fd) var(file))(
This command opens a file. The tt(-r), tt(-w) and tt(-a) flags indicate
whether the file should be opened for reading, writing and appending,
respectively. The tt(-m) option allows the initial permissions to use when
creating a file to be specified in octal form.  The file descriptor is
specified with tt(-u). Either an explicit file descriptor in the range 0 to 9 can
be specified or a variable name can be given to which the file descriptor
number will be assigned.

The tt(-o) option allows various system specific options to be
specified as a comma-separated list. The following is a list of possible
options. Note that, depending on the system, some may not be available.
startitem()
item(tt(cloexec))(
mark file to be closed when other programs are executed (else
the file descriptor remains open in subshells and forked external
executables)
)
xitem(tt(create))
item(tt(creat))(
create file if it does not exist
)
item(tt(excl))(
create file, error if it already exists
)
item(tt(noatime))(
suppress updating of the file atime
)
item(tt(nofollow))(
fail if var(file) is a symbolic link
)
item(tt(nonblock))(
the file is opened in nonblocking mode
)
item(tt(sync))(
request that writes wait until data has been physically written
)
xitem(tt(truncate))
item(tt(trunc))(
truncate file to size 0
)
enditem()

To close the file, use one of the following:

example(tt(exec {)var(fd)tt(}<&-)
tt(exec {)var(fd)tt(}>&-))
)
findex(sysread)
redef(SPACES)(0)(tt(ifztexi(NOTRANS(@ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ ))ifnztexi(        )))
xitem(tt(sysread )[ tt(-c) var(countvar) ] [ tt(-i) var(infd) ] [ tt(-o) var(outfd) ])
item(SPACES()[ tt(-s) var(bufsize) ] [ tt(-t) var(timeout) ] [ var(param) ])(
Perform a single system read from file descriptor var(infd), or zero if
that is not given.  The result of the read is stored in var(param) or
tt(REPLY) if that is not given.  If var(countvar) is given, the number
of bytes read is assigned to the parameter named by var(countvar).

The maximum number of bytes read is var(bufsize) or 8192 if that is not
given, however the command returns as soon as any number of bytes was
successfully read.

If var(timeout) is given, it specifies a timeout in seconds, which may
be zero to poll the file descriptor.  This is handled by the tt(poll)
system call if available, otherwise the tt(select) system call if
available.

If var(outfd) is given, an attempt is made to write all the bytes just
read to the file descriptor var(outfd).  If this fails, because of a
system error other than tt(EINTR) or because of an internal zsh error
during an interrupt, the bytes read but not written are stored in the
parameter named by var(param) if supplied (no default is used in this
case), and the number of bytes read but not written is stored in the
parameter named by var(countvar) if that is supplied.  If it was
successful, var(countvar) contains the full number of bytes transferred,
as usual, and var(param) is not set.

The error tt(EINTR) (interrupted system call) is handled internally so
that shell interrupts are transparent to the caller.  Any other error
causes a return.

The possible return statuses are
startitem()
item(0)(
At least one byte of data was successfully read and, if appropriate,
written.
)
item(1)(
There was an error in the parameters to the command.  This is the only
error for which a message is printed to standard error.
)
item(2)(
There was an error on the read, or on polling the input file descriptor
for a timeout.  The parameter tt(ERRNO) gives the error.
)
item(3)(
Data were successfully read, but there was an error writing them
to var(outfd).  The parameter tt(ERRNO) gives the error.
)
item(4)(
The attempt to read timed out.  Note this does not set tt(ERRNO) as this
is not a system error.
)
item(5)(
No system error occurred, but zero bytes were read.  This usually
indicates end of file.  The parameters are set according to the
usual rules; no write to var(outfd) is attempted.
)
enditem()
)
item(tt(sysseek) [ tt(-u) var(fd) ] [ tt(-w) tt(start)|tt(end)|tt(current) ] var(offset))(
The current file position at which future reads and writes will take place is
adjusted to the specified byte offset. The var(offset) is evaluated as a math
expression. The tt(-u) option allows the file descriptor to be specified. By
default the offset is specified relative to the start or the file but, with the
tt(-w) option, it is possible to specify that the offset should be relative to
the current position or the end of the file.
)
item(tt(syswrite) [ tt(-c) var(countvar) ] [ tt(-o) var(outfd) ] var(data))(
The data (a single string of bytes) are written to the file descriptor
var(outfd), or 1 if that is not given, using the tt(write) system call.
Multiple write operations may be used if the first does not write all
the data.

If var(countvar) is given, the number of byte written is stored in the
parameter named by var(countvar); this may not be the full length of
var(data) if an error occurred.

The error tt(EINTR) (interrupted system call) is handled internally by
retrying; otherwise an error causes the command to return.  For example,
if the file descriptor is set to non-blocking output, an error
tt(EAGAIN) (on some systems, tt(EWOULDBLOCK)) may result in the command
returning early.

The return status may be 0 for success, 1 for an error in the parameters
to the command, or 2 for an error on the write; no error message is
printed in the last case, but the parameter tt(ERRNO) will reflect
the error that occurred.
)
xitem(tt(zsystem flock) [ tt(-t) var(timeout) ] [ tt(-i) var(interval) ] [ tt(-f) var(var) ] [tt(-er)] var(file))
item(tt(zsystem flock -u) var(fd_expr))(
The builtin tt(zsystem)'s subcommand tt(flock) performs advisory file
locking (via the manref(fcntl)(2) system call) over the entire contents
of the given file.  This form of locking requires the processes
accessing the file to cooperate; its most obvious use is between two
instances of the shell itself.

In the first form the named var(file), which must already exist, is
locked by opening a file descriptor to the file and applying a lock to
the file descriptor.  The lock terminates when the shell process that
created the lock exits; it is therefore often convenient to create file
locks within subshells, since the lock is automatically released when
the subshell exits.  Note that use of the tt(print) builtin with the
tt(-u) option will, as a side effect, release the lock, as will redirection
to the file in the shell holding the lock.  To work around this use a
subshell, e.g. `tt((print message) >> )var(file)'.  Status 0 is
returned if the lock succeeds, else status 1.

In the second form the file descriptor given by the arithmetic
expression var(fd_expr) is closed, releasing a lock.  The file descriptor
can be queried by using the `tt(-f) var(var)' form during the lock;
on a successful lock, the shell variable var(var) is set to the file
descriptor used for locking.  The lock will be released if the
file descriptor is closed by any other means, for example using
`tt(exec {)var(var)tt(}>&-)'; however, the form described here performs
a safety check that the file descriptor is in use for file locking.

By default the shell waits indefinitely for the lock to succeed.
The option tt(-t) var(timeout) specifies a timeout for the lock in
seconds; fractional seconds are allowed.  During this period, the
shell will attempt to lock the file every var(interval) seconds
if the tt(-i) var(interval) option is given, otherwise once a second.
(This var(interval) is shortened before the last attempt if needed,
so that the shell waits only until the var(timeout) and not longer.)
If the attempt times out, status 2 is returned.

(Note: var(timeout) is limited to 2^30-1 seconds (about 34 years), and
var(interval) to 0.999 * LONG_MAX microseconds (only about 35 minutes
on 32-bit systems).)

If the option tt(-e) is given, the file descriptor for the lock is
preserved when the shell uses tt(exec) to start a new process;
otherwise it is closed at that point and the lock released.

If the option tt(-r) is given, the lock is only for reading, otherwise
it is for reading and writing.  The file descriptor is opened
accordingly.
)
item(tt(zsystem supports) var(subcommand))(
The builtin tt(zsystem)'s subcommand tt(supports) tests whether a
given subcommand is supported.  It returns status 0 if so, else
status 1.  It operates silently unless there was a syntax error
(i.e. the wrong number of arguments), in which case status 255
is returned.  Status 1 can indicate one of two things:  var(subcommand)
is known but not supported by the current operating system, or
var(subcommand) is not known (possibly because this is an older
version of the shell before it was implemented).
)
enditem()

subsect(Math Functions)

startitem()
item(tt(systell+LPAR()var(fd)RPAR()))(
The systell math function returns the current file position for the file
descriptor passed as an argument.
)
enditem()

subsect(Parameters)

startitem()
vindex(errnos)
item(tt(errnos))(
A readonly array of the names of errors defined on the system.  These
are typically macros defined in C by including the system header file
tt(errno.h).  The index of each name (assuming the option tt(KSH_ARRAYS)
is unset) corresponds to the error number.  Error numbers var(num)
before the last known error which have no name are given the name
tt(E)var(num) in the array.

Note that aliases for errors are not handled; only the canonical name is
used.
)
vindex(sysparams)
item(tt(sysparams))(
A readonly associative array.  The keys are:

startitem()
item(tt(pid))(
vindex(pid, sysparams)
Returns the process ID of the current process, even in subshells.  Compare
tt($$), which returns the process ID of the main shell process.
)
item(tt(ppid))(
vindex(ppid, sysparams)
Returns the current process ID of the parent of the current process, even
in subshells.  Compare tt($PPID), which returns the process ID of the
initial parent of the main shell process.
)
item(tt(procsubstpid))(
Returns the process ID of the last process started for process
substitution, i.e. the tt(<LPAR())var(...)tt(RPAR()) and
tt(>LPAR())var(...)tt(RPAR()) expansions.
)
enditem()
)
enditem()
debug log:

solving 884c3e753 ...
found 884c3e753 in https://git.vuxu.org/mirror/zsh/

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