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From: Alan Schmitt <alan.schmitt@polytechnique.org>
To: "lwn" <lwn@lwn.net>, "cwn"  <cwn@lists.idyll.org>, caml-list@inria.fr
Subject: [Caml-list] Attn: Development Editor, Latest OCaml Weekly News
Date: Tue, 15 Mar 2022 10:59:22 +0100	[thread overview]
Message-ID: <87a6dr1qpx.fsf@m4x.org> (raw)

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Hello

Here is the latest OCaml Weekly News, for the week of March 08 to 15,
2022.

Table of Contents
─────────────────

Robur Reproducible Builds
OCaml TeXmacs plugin
Release of ocaml-sf/learn-ocaml:0.14.0
Tutorial: Roguelike with effect handlers
Awesome Multicore OCaml and Multicore Monorepo
ppx_viewpattern initial release
Old CWN


Robur Reproducible Builds
═════════════════════════

  Archive:
  <https://discuss.ocaml.org/t/ann-robur-reproducible-builds/8827/6>


Continuing this thread, Hannes Mehnert announced
────────────────────────────────────────────────

  The background article by @rand is now online
  <https://r7p5.earth/blog/2022-3-7/Builder-web%20visualizations%20at%20Robur>


OCaml TeXmacs plugin
════════════════════

  Archive:
  <https://sympa.inria.fr/sympa/arc/caml-list/2022-03/msg00009.html>


Nicolas Ratier announced
────────────────────────

  I made a basic OCaml plugin for TeXmacs (<http://www.texmacs.org>) I
  would like to keep it simple, but comments and improvements are
  welcome.
  <http://forum.texmacs.cn/t/ocaml-a-basic-ocaml-plugin-for-texmacs/813>


Release of ocaml-sf/learn-ocaml:0.14.0
══════════════════════════════════════

  Archive:
  <https://discuss.ocaml.org/t/ann-release-of-ocaml-sf-learn-ocaml-0-14-0/9491/1>


Yurug announced
───────────────

  We are very pleased to announce the latest stable release of
  [Learn-OCaml], version `0.14.0'.

  Many thanks to all users and developers who reported bugs, contributed
  features, or patches! Special thanks to @erikmd who made many of the
  changes included in this release.

  A (mostly) comprehensive list of the features, fixes, and enhancements
  offered by this release is available in [the Release Notes ].

  A brief and incomplete summary of the changes:

  • A long-standing bug has been fixed. This bug was triggered when the
    user opened several sessions: the auto-sync mechanism could lead to
    overwriting the student's code with an older version.

  • The release assets now include a zip file containing the contents of
    the `www` directory. This eases the usage of the distributed
    binaries.

  If need be, feel free to open issues in the [Learn-OCaml bug tracker]
  or the [learn-ocaml.el bug tracker], or post in this thread to share
  thoughts or experience-feedback.

  Happy OCaml learning and teaching!


[Learn-OCaml] <https://github.com/ocaml-sf/learn-ocaml>

[the Release Notes ]
<https://github.com/ocaml-sf/learn-ocaml/releases/tag/v0.14.0>

[Learn-OCaml bug tracker]
<https://github.com/ocaml-sf/learn-ocaml/issues>

[learn-ocaml.el bug tracker]
<https://github.com/pfitaxel/learn-ocaml.el/issues>


Tutorial: Roguelike with effect handlers
════════════════════════════════════════

  Archive:
  <https://discuss.ocaml.org/t/tutorial-roguelike-with-effect-handlers/9422/18>


Continuing this thread, stw said
────────────────────────────────

  Sorry about the late reply, I was busy actually verifying that my
  concept works out. Thankfully it does :smile:

  The UI framework is inspired by [Concur] which means that every widget
  listens for some set of events and suspends computation until one of
  these events occurs. Once it does, it continues execution until it
  encounter the next await at which point it will suspend once
  more. Once a widget has fulfilled its purpose it terminates with some
  return value (e.g. text input is confirmed with enter -> return with a
  string).  Complex UIs are then built by composing simpler widgets. A
  more detailed explanation can be found in the link above.

  I've implemented this concept using an await function that takes a
  list of triggers and a handler for each possible event:
  ┌────
  │ effect Await : Event.t list -> Event.t
  │ let rec await triggers handler =
  │   handler (EffectHandlers.perform (Await triggers))
  │ 
  │ let rec check_box checked  =
  │   (* display check box *)
  │   ...;
  │   await [Mouse_press; Key_press] (function
  │   | Mouse_press ->
  │     print_endline "I've been (un-)checked!";
  │     check_box (not checked)
  │   | Key_press -> (* Terminate if any key is pressed *) checked)
  └────

  Every widget can then be implemented as a function which displays the
  widget and performs an `Await triggers' which is resumed by passing an
  event from `triggers', for example the check box above.

  The most complex widget I've implemented so far is a single line text
  input. It can be clicked or selected with tab.  Moving the mouse while
  holding the button down changes the selection. As an automaton:

  <https://aws1.discourse-cdn.com/standard11/uploads/ocaml/original/2X/5/574e164b6189608283de32d9f375534ca80caffa.png>

  Obviously, this is not a directed acyclic graph and therefore not a
  perfect fit for the implicit state stored in the
  continuation. Specifically, `Pressed' has an edge to one of its
  multiple parents. We can extract the `Pressed' state into its own
  function and therefore avoid this issue by 'duplicating' this
  state. Now `Pressed' no longer has multiple parents:

  <https://aws1.discourse-cdn.com/standard11/uploads/ocaml/original/2X/7/70a34d2f4bb81800a5e3b12b8e49147a0d80ece4.png>

  Some cycles remain and we can't remove them because they are essential
  to the functionality. Instead we throw an `exception Repeat' that
  returns us to a parent node (explicitly shown for Focused -> Pressed
  -> Released -> Focused).  To do that we modify `await':
  ┌────
  │ let rec await triggers handler =
  │   try handler (EffectHandlers.perform (Await triggers)) with
  │   | Repeat -> await triggers handler
  └────
  In the end this results in this main method for the text input, with
  only minor simplifications:
  ┌────
  │ method execute =
  │   (* Represent the Pressed state.
  │      We await the Mouse_release and handle Mouse_motion while we wait. *)
  │   let pressed (x,_) =
  │     selection <- Point x;
  │     await [`Mouse_release; `Mouse_motion] @@ function
  │     | `Mouse_release (_, LMB) ->
  │       ()
  │     | `Mouse_motion (x,_) ->
  │       self#select x;
  │       raise Repeat (* This restarts the await function *)
  │     | _ ->
  │       raise Repeat
  │   in
  │ 
  │   (* We start in the Unfocused state *)
  │   begin
  │     await [`Mouse_press; `Key_press] @@ function
  │     | `Mouse_press (pos, LMB) ->
  │        (* We have registered the press, but only when it is released
  │ 	  will we be focused. *)
  │        pressed pos
  │     | `Key_press Tab ->
  │       selection <- Area (0, List.length keys)
  │     | _ -> raise Repeat
  │   end;
  │ 
  │   (* We move into the Focused state *)
  │   begin
  │     await [`Codepoint; `Key_press; `Mouse_press] @@ function
  │     | `Key_press Tab | `Key_press Return ->
  │       () (* The only path without raising Repeat.
  │ 	    Therefore we only leave this await when a tab or return occurs *)
  │     | `Mouse_press (pos, LMB) ->
  │       pressed pos;
  │       raise Repeat
  │     | `Key_press c ->
  │       self#insert c;
  │       raise Repeat
  │     | _ -> raise Repeat
  │   end;
  │   (* We have reached the finished state. We can now return the entered text. *)
  │   self#text
  └────
  I think that this method captures the automaton above quite nicely and
  can be relatively easily understood (hopefully even when one is
  unfamiliar with the framework and accepts that some magic is happening
  in the background (: ).  Implementing automatons in terms of effect
  handlers seems to work quite well, at least for games and UIs. What
  these automatons have in common is that they can be thought of as
  flows, starting at some state and ending at one of multiple final
  states and only have few edges that don't fit this scheme, turning
  them into 'directed almost acyclic graphs'.

  There is obviously a lot more necessary for a UI framework
  (e.g. resizing the window/widgets, delegating the events to the
  correct widget, composing widgets, drawing on the screen etc.) and I
  plan to write about it at some point in the future. But for that I
  will first need to actually solve these problems as right now their
  implementation is quite barebones. The code can be found here for
  those interested (still very early in development!):
  <https://github.com/Willenbrink/bogue/>


[Concur]
<https://ajnsit.github.io/concur-documentation/ch02-01-anatomy-of-a-widget.html>


Awesome Multicore OCaml and Multicore Monorepo
══════════════════════════════════════════════

  Archive:
  <https://discuss.ocaml.org/t/awesome-multicore-ocaml-and-multicore-monorepo/9515/1>


Patrick Ferris announced
────────────────────────

  A short announcement of two repositories which some people may or may
  not have seen. Firstly, [Awesome Multicore OCaml], a place for
  gathering all of the rapidly changing experiments, ideas, libraries
  and resources for Multicore OCaml (including some of the discuss
  threads). If you are working on something or feel anything is missing
  please open a PR!

  Secondly, a [Multicore Monorepo] which aims to provide a very quick
  and easy way to try out effects and parallelism with quite a few
  libraries (such as Eio, Dream etc.). The breaking changes introduced
  by OCaml 5 can make it frustrating to get such a setup in place,
  although this is less and less true thanks to the [alpha
  repository]. The idea is that you should just be able to clone this
  repository, create a new `5.0.0+trunk' switch, install `dune' and
  start hacking. If that's not the case please do open an issue.


[Awesome Multicore OCaml]
<https://github.com/patricoferris/awesome-multicore-ocaml>

[Multicore Monorepo]
<https://github.com/patricoferris/ocaml-multicore-monorepo>

[alpha repository]
<https://github.com/kit-ty-kate/opam-alpha-repository>


ppx_viewpattern initial release
═══════════════════════════════

  Archive:
  <https://discuss.ocaml.org/t/ann-ppx-viewpattern-initial-release/9516/1>


Simmo Saan announced
────────────────────

  I'm glad to announce the initial release of [ppx_viewpattern] –
  transformation for view patterns in OCaml.

  It _attempts to_ imitate [Haskell view patterns]. I wrote this ppx
  rewriter mostly out of curiosity, rather than need, but it turned out
  neat enough that others might find it interesting or even useful.


[ppx_viewpattern] <https://github.com/sim642/ppx_viewpattern>

[Haskell view patterns]
<https://ghc.gitlab.haskell.org/ghc/doc/users_guide/exts/view_patterns.html>

Syntax
╌╌╌╌╌╌

  Use `[%view? pat when exp]' as a pattern to apply `exp' to whatever
  the pattern is matching and match the result of the `exp' application
  against `pat'.  This is analogous to the Haskell view pattern `exp ->
  pat'.

  The above extension node payload syntax is the best I could come up
  with to combine an expression and a pattern.  Honestly, I was even
  surprised that `when exp' is attached to a pattern in the AST (not a
  case), because normally it isn't part of the pattern itself.


Example
╌╌╌╌╌╌╌

  This allows one to write
  ┌────
  │ (* These cases are exactly like reduction rules! *)
  │ let rec reduce = function
  │   | Add (Int n1, Int n2) -> Some (Int (n1 + n2))
  │   | Add ([%view? Some p1' when reduce], p2) -> Some (Add (p1', p2))
  │   | Add (p1, [%view? Some p2' when reduce]) -> Some (Add (p1, p2'))
  │   (* ... *)
  │   | _ -> None
  └────
  instead of
  ┌────
  │ (* These nested cases are so annoying! *)
  │ let rec reduce = function
  │   | Add (Int n1, Int n2) -> Some (Int (n1 + n2))
  │   | Add (p1, p2) ->
  │     begin match reduce p1 with
  │       | Some p1' -> Some (Add (p1', p2))
  │       | None ->
  │ 	begin match reduce p2 with
  │ 	  | Some p2' -> Some (Add (p1, p2'))
  │ 	  | None -> None
  │ 	end
  │     end
  │   (* ... *)
  │   | _ -> None
  └────

  See [`examples/' on GitHub] for more.


[`examples/' on GitHub]
<https://github.com/sim642/ppx_viewpattern/tree/master/example>


Old CWN
═══════

  If you happen to miss a CWN, you can [send me a message] and I'll mail
  it to you, or go take a look at [the archive] or the [RSS feed of the
  archives].

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  [Alan Schmitt]


[send me a message] <mailto:alan.schmitt@polytechnique.org>

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[online] <http://lists.idyll.org/listinfo/caml-news-weekly/>

[Alan Schmitt] <https://alan.petitepomme.net/>


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